By Mark G. Tjoelker, Adam Boratynski, Wladyslaw Bugala
This is a concise and entire evaluate of the biology, ecology, and administration of Norway spruce. Written via 25 specialists within the box, and richly illustrated, it integrates vintage and modern literature. greater than 2000 works are brought up within the textual content, which highlights uncomplicated examine and forestry practices in crucial and japanese Europe. the large diversity of issues coated contains the species’ morphology, its body structure and meals, and its ecology.
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Extra resources for Biology and Ecology of Norway Spruce (Forestry Sciences)
Old phellogen layers are eventually cut off to form the outer bark scales or plates. Each scale is comprised of periderm and secondary phloem cut off by phellogen. Scales on the stem surface are typically small and are sloughed off. In roots they are much larger and remain intact. In the periderm there are isolated regions distinguished from the phellem by the presence of intercellular spaces, called lenticels. These structures permit the entry of air through the periderm. The phellogen of a lenticel is continuous with that of the periderm.
Populations originating from the Carpathian refugium first migrated to Volhynia and southern Polessia and then to the Masovian and Podlasian Lowlands. 2. Norway spruce populations from the east migrated to central Europe later during the middle of the Holocene and subsequently spread to the southwest. Signs of this migration are represented in the intermediate morphological and phenological traits of populations in the regions north of the Carpathians and south of the Białowieża Primeval Forest in northeastern Poland.
The problems concerning both disjunctions have been summarized by ŚRODOŃ (1967a, b) and the seminal study of SCHMIDT-VOGT (1977). The aim of the present work is to summarize the prior findings and include literature evidence from paleobotany, biogeography, as well as genetic and morphological evidence to understand the present geographic distribution of Norway spruce in central Europe. 1. The history of the spruceless belt RIVOLI (1884) first described the geographic range of Norway spruce in central Europe.