Bioanalysis and Biosensors for Bioprocess Monitoring by Bernhard Sonnleitner

By Bernhard Sonnleitner

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2 Cell Number Concentration Determination of the cell number concentration (cell counting) requires that cells are suspended singly. If this is not the case in the culture, an additional step 44 B. Sonnleitner Fig. 27. g. g. by trypsinization) is necessary [117, 165]. g. [224], or in a flow cytometer [153]. Inactivation is not a decisive factor unless the population to be quantified is highly synchronized and close to the cell cycle phase of cell separation. In a few cases, biomass is estimated as colony forming units (cfu’s); however, this method is employed nearly exclusively in hygienic analyses of water, waste water, soil and sludge samples.

463]. ). The most limiting disadvantages are actually interferences from ambient light and the comparatively small dynamic ranges. g. g. g. g. g. [201]. 3 Calorimetric Sensors This type of biosensor exploits the fact that enzymatic reactions are exothermic (5–100 kJ mol –1 ). The biogenic heat can be detected by thermistors or temperature-sensitive semiconductor devices. A technical realization can be performed either by immobilizing enzymes on particles in a column around the heat-sensing device or by direct attachment of the immobilized enzyme to the temperature transducer.

Fuel cells [22] can measure the redox potential of a culture [149] but are comparably very slow and delayed. g. colony forming units (cfu), and to be rapid (a few minutes per analysis). This system was applied for on-line monitoring of an Escherichia coli culture. However, the dielectric properties of cells such as distinct deviations in the capacity values have been shown to depend on the growth stage of a culture [267]. 3 Filtration Properties Lenz et al. [233] and Reuss et al. [344] have further developed an automatic filtration device [300, 435] that allows the estimation of the biomass concentration in a relatively large sample (approx.

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