Attitudinal Ambivalence by Jost

By Jost

It truly is argued that individuals of low prestige teams are confronted with a mental clash among workforce justification developments to judge participants of one's personal staff favorably and process justification traits to advise the prevalence of upper prestige outgroups. In learn 1, contributors of low prestige teams exhibited much less ingroup favoritism and extra ingroup ambivalence than did participants of excessive prestige teams. Perceptions that the prestige changes have been valid elevated outgroup favoritism and ambivalence between low prestige teams, they usually elevated ingroup favoritism and lowered ambivalence between excessive prestige teams. In research 2, the assumption in a simply global and social dominance orientation elevated ambivalence at the a part of ladies towards girl sufferers of gender discrimination, yet they diminished ambivalence at the a part of males. facts right here exhibits that system-justifying variables elevate ingroup ambivalence between low prestige team contributors and reduce ambivalence between excessive prestige workforce individuals.

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To sum up, the psychosocial stages occur in an invariant sequence, and the resolution of each successive crisis leaves an indelible impression on personality, which moreover influences the resolution of subsequent crises. The outcome of the successful resolution of life’s developmental crises is the healthy integrated personality. The healthy personality charts a course through each crisis ‘emerging and re-emerging with an increased sense of inner unity, with an increase of good judgement and an increase in the 34 The psychoanalytic approach capacity to do well, according to the standards of those who are significant to him’ (Erikson 1959:51).

Initially Freud used hypnosis to bring to the surface the hidden, or forgotten, or unrecognised, thoughts and feelings of his patients. Breuer’s earlier work with Anna O had demonstrated the benefits of hypnosis, especially when she was able to express the strong emotions which these forgotten thoughts had induced in her. But Freud finally abandoned hypnosis because of his conviction that at the heart of the therapeutic process was the relationship between the patient and the therapist. The core of this relationship 24 The psychoanalytic approach is the phenomenon of ‘transference’ whereby the patient transfers on to the therapist the intense feelings previously associated with parents and other authority figures: We mean a transference of feelings on to the person of the doctor, since we do not believe that the situation in the treatment could justify the development of such feelings.

There it is taken over by a portion of the ego, which sets itself over against the rest of the ego as super-ego, and which now, in the form of ‘conscience’, is ready to put into action against the ego the same harsh aggressiveness that the ego would have liked to satisfy upon other, extraneous individuals. The tension between the harsh super-ego and the ego that is subjected to it, is called by us the sense of guilt; it expresses itself as a need for punishment. Civilization, therefore, obtains mastery over the individual’s dangerous desire for aggression by weakening and disarming it and by setting up an agency within him to watch over it, like a garrison in a conquered city.

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