Atlas of Woody Plant Stems: Evolution, Structure, and by Fritz Hans Schweingruber

By Fritz Hans Schweingruber

he „Atlas of Woody Plant Stems“ is a com- clearly, it used to be most unlikely to hide thoroughly the Tprehensively illustrated e-book with brief, in- huge, immense variability of plants kinds. we've formative texts. We selected this format simply because plant attempted, even though, to demonstrate the most rules and anatomy and morphology can in simple terms be conveyed via beneficial properties. Many many years of assortment and prepa- precise photographs. additionally, a brilliant presentation tion supplied the foundation for this ebook. should still allure a broader public, not just the s- cialist. we are hoping that the combo of anatomy Fritz Schweingruber wish to thank the Swiss and morphology will create curiosity and interest. Federal learn Institute WSL, that provided him Amateurs will benefit from the wide selection of images; hospitality after his retirement. The authors thank all readers might be stuck through specific chap- the scholars and associates that experience, for many years, ters; experts will delve into points and photograph- accrued and ready samples, and who helped graphs that can have by no means been offered earlier than; with the English translations. because of John Kirby academics might use the images for illustrations in who made the fnal English enhancing. periods with students.

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Eccentricity and compression wood formation indicate different directions of mechanical stress (arrows). Small right: Heavy snow load on a spruce. In response to the temporal variable distribution of loads the tree builds reaction wood zones at different parts of the stem. 53 3 SECONDARY GROWTH: ADVANTAGES AND RISKS THE RISKS OF INSTABILITY: REACTION WOOD C ompression wood forms on the loaded side and is combined with enhanced cell production. A typical compression wood cell is circular in crosssection, has helical cavities in the cell wall structure, a high lignin content and high compression resistance.

The parenchyma cells are round. Common Juniper (Juniperus communis). 23 Completely compressed sieve cells in Norway Spruce (Picea abies). The reduced diameter is indicated by the bent rays. The big, round parenchyma cells and the ray cells contain nuclei and are therefore alive. 24 Completely compressed sieve tubes between sclerenchyma fibers in living Birch phloem (Betula pendula). 26 Ray dilatation in the phloem. 25 Uniseriate conifer rays enlarge by forming new parenchyma cells. The beginning of dilatation occurs at different times.

3). Behind the tip, some cells remain meristematic and form the leaf primordia lateral meristem. 4). Reactivated parenchyma cells in the cortex form the periderm. A meristem of secondary origin creates the periderm. It replaces the epidermis in stems and roots, which grow bigger by secondary growth. 1 Longitudinal section of the shoot tip of an Ash twig (Fraxinus excelsior). The apical, primary meristem and the leaf primordia are shown. In the center, behind the growing region, there is the pith, and on either side of the pith the first xylem cells can be found.

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