By Felix K. Ameka, Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
This e-book explores the thesis that during the Kwa languages of West Africa, point and modality are extra vital to the grammar of the verb than stressful. the place stressful marking has emerged it truly is continuously within the expression of the longer term, and hence interested in the upcoming actualization or potentiality of an occasion, accordingly with modality, instead of the in simple terms temporal sequencing linked to stressful. the first grammatical contrasts are perfective as opposed to imperfective.The major languages mentioned are Akan, Dangme, Ewe, Ga and Tuwuli whereas Nzema-Ahanta, Likpe and jap Gbe also are pointed out. wisdom approximately those languages has deepened significantly prior to now decade or so and concepts approximately their constitution have replaced. the quantity for this reason offers novel analyses of grammatical kinds just like the so-called S-Aux-O-V-Other or "future" structures, and gives empirical facts for theorizing approximately point and modality. it's going to be of substantial curiosity to Africanist linguists, typologists, and creolists attracted to substrate matters.
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Extra resources for Aspect and Modality in Kwa Languages (Studies in Language Companion Series)
Or b. ’ (44) ѐ bϯ-híá sìká he FUT-need money Either a. ’ Or b. A. BOADI (45) ѐ bϯ-yϯ ѐsѐfòѐ he FUT-be priest Either a. ’ Or b. ’ (46) ϯ bϯ-yϯ hú it FUT-be terrifying Either a. ’ Or b. ’ The likelihood interpretation of bϯ is possible for sentences of this structure only if the Subject of the verb is Second or Third Person. ’’ The likelihood interpretation is ruled out here for an obvious reason: the referent of the Subject of the sentence is the speaker making an assertion about himself, which he knows to be factually true at the time of speaking.
In what follows we illustrate its occurrence with the other affixes of the verb. 1 NEG with the Habitual and Stative NEG with the Habitual and NEG with the Stative in Akyem and Asante have the same phonetic representation.
B. c. ’ The meaning of (83b) is clear; the referent of the Subject is viewed as going through a situation or a world which will ultimately find him/her lying on a surface. Unlike in the case of many other verbs, it would be wrong to render the use of the Progressive here with the English -ing form of the verb. ‘he is lying down’ in English means he is already in a position of rest. In (83a) the event is pictured as having (i) a beginning, (ii) an end, which represents the completion of the event, and (iii) a state, which results from the completion.