By Elly van Gelderen
I purchased this booklet for a linguistics type. it's a thoroughly sufficient linguistics textbook.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to the Grammar of English
To what categories do the nonsense words belong in Lewis Carroll’s “Jabberwocky”, given in Section 4 above? Which arguments did you use to decide on these? Choose five words that are grammatical categories and look them up in a dictionary. How do dictionaries deal with them? Broca’s aphasia results in a loss of grammatical categories, such as determiners and auxiliaries, but not in a loss of lexical categories, such as nouns and verbs. It is sometimes called agrammatism. Wernicke’s aphasia results in a loss of meaning, but not in a loss of grammatical categories.
E. f. end in -ly in many cases, -wise, -ways, etc. g: place, manner, time, duration, etc. 3 Prepositions (P) Prepositions typically express place or time (at, in, on, before), direction (to, from, into, down), causation (for), or relation (of, about, with, like, as, near). They are invariable in form and have to occur before a noun, as (28) shows, where the prepositions are in bold and the nouns they go with are underlined: (28) With their books about linguistics, they went to school. On occasion, what look like prepositions are used on their own, as in (29): (29) He went in; they ran out; and he jumped down.
Swan (1980: 296–7) mentions that there are two uses: one is ‘full of hope’, as in (65), and the other use, as in (66), “shows the speaker’s attitude”, and means ‘it is hoped’. According to Swan, “[s]ome people consider the second use ‘incorrect’. Both functions will be dealt with in Chapter 5: (65) They waited hopefully for a positive response. (66) Hopefully, that concert is worth going to. It is not clear why hopefully should have attracted all this attention. g. those in (67) to (70): (67) Naturally, I’d like you to stay with us for a few days.