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After taking over political institutions, secularization has spread to the realms of public and private law, education, fiscal practice, and the judiciary. Today, the unity of the Muslim community is more than ever compromised by national rivalries and ideological dissensions which rarely have anything to do with the ultimate interests of believers. How should the city react to the challenge of the present and yet remain Muslim? I am certainly not qualified to answer a question which has for a long time caused much spilling of ink and much preoccupation to many good minds.

In deciding to visit Mecca, to which he has so often turned in prayer, the believer calls to mind the saying of the Prophet, that “the Pilgrimage performed in piety will have no other reward than Paradise”. He formulates his intention to perform the Pilgrimage “for God alone”, for the reward of any deed depends upon the intention that inspires it and, together with the blessings and prayers of his familiars, he bears with him piety “which is the best provision on the way” (Koran 2: 197). On arriving at his first destination, which is the point of entry to the Sacred Territory he is immediately caught up in a series of ceremonies that proceed without interruption for four days.

29: 45). It follows then that the real raison d’être of man is to worship God, which implies that the whole of his existence should be an act of devotion and remembrance vis-a-vis his Maker. The idea of remembrance, of recollection—dhikr, tadhkīr—is fundamental to Islam. The Koran is called dhikr Allāh, remembrance of God, and dhikr Allāh is also one of the names given to the Prophet Muhammad, not only because he was the trustee and transmitter of the Koran, but also because his behavior, his words, and his teachings—in short all that makes up the Sunnah, the Prophetic Tradition—show to what extent he remembered his Lord, and as a result of this constant remembrance, was near to Him.

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