By Roger Hopkins Burke
This ebook offers a accomplished and up to date advent to criminological concept for college students taking classes in criminology at either undergraduate and postgraduate point. The textual content is split into 5 elements, the 1st 3 of which deal with excellent sort versions of felony behaviour the rational actor, predestined actor, and victimized actor versions. inside those some of the criminological theories can be found chronologically within the context of 1 of those assorted traditions, and the strengths and weaknesses of every concept and version are sincerely pointed out. The fourth a part of the e-book appears extra heavily at more moderen makes an attempt to combine theoretical parts from either inside and throughout types of legal behaviour, whereas the 5th half addresses a couple of key fresh matters of criminology – postmodernism, cultural criminology, globalization and communitarianism.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Criminological Theory, 3rd Edition
Suggested further reading For some contrasting accounts from very different perspectives of pre-modern criminal justice and attempts to explain the causes of crime see Foucault (1977), Hay (1981) and Thompson (1975). Garland (1997) provides something of a pragmatic antidote to those who seek to identify distinct ruptures between pre-modern and modern thinking. For an introduction to the notion of modern society and modernity albeit in the context of his discussion of postmodernity see Harvey (1989).
It has its origins in a range of philosophical, political, economic and social ideas that were developed and articulated during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and which were fundamentally critical of the established order and its religious interpretations of the natural world. Two major sets of ideas provide the intellectual foundations of a major period of social change: social contract theories and utilitarianism. The essence of social contract theories is the notion that legitimate government is only possible with the voluntary agreement of free human beings who are able to exercise free will.
Second, there is the recognition that the emergence of humanity from its primitive state involved the application of reason – an appreciation of the meaning and consequences of actions – by responsible individuals. Third, the human ‘will’ is recognised as a psychological reality, a faculty of the individual that regulates and controls behaviour, and is generally free. Fourth, society has a ‘right’ to inflict punishment although this right has been transferred to the political state, and a system of punishments for forbidden acts, or a ‘code of criminal law’.