All or Nothing: The Axis and the Holocaust 1941-43 by Jonathan Steinberg

By Jonathan Steinberg

Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy have been united in a 'brutal friendship'. either had savage racial legislation: either Hitler and Mussolini viciously denounced the 'Jewish menace'. but each one kingdom taken care of the Jews relatively in a different way. while Jews who fell into the fingers of the German military have been consigned, nearly with out exception to focus camps, no longer one Jew taken via the Italians suffered an identical destiny. Italian officials safe not only Italian Jews, yet Jewish refugees of each nationality. Jonathan Steinberg makes use of this notable and poignant tale to solve the reasons and forces underpinning either Nazism and Fascism in an try to unravel the underlying query: Why?

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No sensible British government would carry on the fight after the fall of France. It cost little to concede spheres of influence to Italy which would fall to the Axis in any case. On the other hand, Hitler had a shrewd idea of Italian strength and a week after Ciano returned from Berlin he declined ‘in a definite and courteous way the offer to send an Italian expeditionary force’ for the invasion of Britain. 12 The summer and early autumn of 1940 was a difficult time of waiting for both dictators.

The frontier passed so close to the city of Ljubljana that it lost ‘its economic rationale. The aqueduct and electricity plants have ended in German hands, the mines and cotton plants too…. [there is] widespread discontent with Germany’47 Negotiations between Italy and the new Croatian state produced no easy agreement. Ante Pavelić, its leader or Poglavnik, modelled himself and his Ustaši movement on Mussolini and fascism; indeed, he owed his and its survival to fascist protection and support during the 1930s when Pavelić and his followers were in UNSYSTEMATIC MURDER 25 Map 1 German and Italian zones of occupation in Yugoslavia, 1941–43 exile in Italy.

Russian prisoners of war died in their tens of thousands in the same way. The peoples of Yugoslavia were different; the ancient traditions of the UNSYSTEMATIC MURDER 31 bands, the cetniki, and of the heroic brigand, the hajduk, had never died out. Arms were like hoes and rakes, part of a peasant’s stock of tools. Mountains were high and crossed by donkey tracks. Sporadic fighting had already broken out as Serbs resisted the Croatians. Now, partly under the influence of organized communist cadres, formal revolt began, on 13 July in Montenegro and on the 27th in the Lika, the zone between the Dalmatian coast and the mountains.

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