AHFS Drug Information 2004 by Wilson Golder N.

By Wilson Golder N.

Offers scientific scholars 500 questions, solutions, and motives to arrange for the biochemistry and genetics sections of the USMLE Step 1. the recent variation comprises many new questions within the two-step scientific structure to simulate the USMLE Step 1.

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DNA ligase catalyzes the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the 3′ hydroxyl group at the end of one DNA chain and the 5′ DNA phosphate group at the end of the other. DNA ligase is only functional when double-helical DNA molecules are the substrate. It does not work on single-stranded DNA. DNA ligase effects the joining of strands of DNA not only during the normal synthesis of DNA, but during the splicing of DNA chains in genetic recombination as well as the repair of damaged DNA. 23. The answer is d.

Proteins such as histones, which are bound to mammalian chromosomes, inhibit DNA replication or transcription. Dissociation of the protein-DNA complex (chromatin) and unwinding of DNA supercoils (followed by chromatin reassembly) is part of the replication process. 11. The answer is b. (Murray, pp 412–434. Scriver, pp 3–45. Sack, pp 3–29. ) The Ames test is a rapid and relatively inexpensive bacterial assay for determining mutagenicity of potential toxic chemicals. Since many chemical carcinogens are mutagenic, it seems obvious that damage to DNA is a central event in carcinogenesis as well as mutagenesis.

Sack, pp 3–29. ) Despite the great length of the chromosomes of eukaryotic DNA, the actual replication time is only minutes. This is because eukaryotic DNA is replicated bidirectionally from many points of origin. The hundreds of initiation sites for DNA replication on chromosomes share a consensus sequence called an autonomous replication sequence (ARS). Thus, while the process of DNA replication in mammals is similar to that in bacteria, with DNA polymerases of similar optimal temperatures and speed, the many replication forks allow for a rapid synthesis of chromosomal DNA.

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