700 Classroom Activities by Maria Popova David Seymour

By Maria Popova David Seymour

Книга seven hundred lecture room actions seven hundred school room actions Книги Иностранные языки Автор: Maria Popova, David Seymour Год издания: 2006 Формат: pdf Издат.:Ashford color Press Ltd Страниц: 156 Размер: 8,4 Mb ISBN: 1405017775 Язык: Английский0 (голосов: zero) Оценка:This is a ebook which does precisely what it says at the disguise. It presents a major speedy repertoire of educating rules – together with either lecture room classics that each one ELT lecturers come to grasp and love and clean, new actions at a number of degrees from trouble-free to higher intermediate.The transparent association of the e-book makes it effortless to go refer and complement your coursebook or syllabus. the entire actions were classroom-tested – and none of them require photocopying.

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Temporal terms The first site to be considered is that of terms for tense and sequencing derived from spatial terms. I have dis­ cussed the semantics of these terms extensively elsewhere (cf. Traugott , 1975; 1978) and so will present only a brief sketch here. The temporal terms serve as good examples of conventional, dying and dead metaphors, the origins of some of which are still transparent, since many of the expres­ sions still have spatial as well as temporal uses. Several of the terms are included in Lakoff and Johnson as examples of the conceptual metaphors we live by, but others, like until are not, because, as has been mentioned, these are dead metaphors.

Go Figure IV. It should be noted that where these superimposed schemata 28 ELIZABETH CLOSS TRAUGOTT are used, either Ego or time or both are treated as if they are in motion. Several linguists have claimed that the spa­ tial models for tense deixis and sequencing involve differ­ ent perspectives on the same spatial configuration, depend­ ing on whether Ego or time is seen to move. Benveniste, for example, says that we conceptualize events: as points seen behind or ahead in relation to the present.

Thus while they treat come in the time will oome when ... :42) because oome also has a spatial use, they do not treat until as a metaphor since the preposition no longer has the spatial sense of "up to (a location)" (Lakoff, p . c ) . However, other authors appear not to make such clear distinctions between conventional and dead meta2 phors. For example, Searle says of She is very cold that it is becoming or has become a dead metaphor, on the grounds that the OED lists 'lack of emotions' as one of the meanings of cold (Searle 1979:1o8), and he then continues to dis­ cuss the sentence as one of the kinds of metaphorical expres­ sions to be accounted for in his theory.

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